Gate 2024 is almost here and our young aspirants have never been so restless. Our students are ready and we can feel the excitement and anticipation for the exam building up. However, every passing day brings us closer to the BIG DAY, the day of examination. And for that, VedPrep Chem Academy has curated the perfect guide for all the GATE aspirants out there. Curated with Ved Sir, this guide will solve all your queries regarding “How to prepare for GATE 2024”.
So let’s dive right into this ultimate guide!
A Quick Summary
GATE or Graduate Aptitude Test in Engineering is an examination for aspirants who aspire to pursue Master of Engineering, M.Tech., and Ph.D. GATE lets aspirants get direct admissions into the most prestigious universities of our country such as IITs, IIITs, and IISERs.
Moreover, the top GATE Rankers can get direct or interviewed jobs in PSUs like Indian Oil, GAIL, and CIL.
If you want to learn more about GATE and it’s latest notifications, then you can click on the links below:
👉Everything about GATE: click here
👉GATE 2024 notification: click here
👉Tips and Tricks for GATE: click here
GATE 2024 Pattern of Question Paper (Latest)
Since GATE is a highly competitive examination, your rank is what matters the most. No matter what your GATE scorecard says, it’s your rank that will decide your future. Therefore, preparation for a good rank starts with understanding the examination first. This is the first step of our guide “How to prepare for GATE 2024”. We’ll be analysing the GATE examination for Chemistry. However, the strategy for GATE 2024 will be applicable for all subjects. So, let’s go through the exam pattern!
- The exam will have a total of 65 questions.
- 10 Aptitude based questions
- 55 subject based questions
- There will be 3 types of questions in the GATE 2024 Question Paper
- Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs) carrying 1-2 marks each in all papers and sections.
- Multiple Select Questions (MSQs) carrying 1-2 marks each.
- Numerical Answer Type Questions (NATs) carrying 1-2 marks each in most papers and sections.
Further Analysis of GATE 2024 Examination Pattern
The duration of GATE 2024 will be the same as every other year. That is, 3 hours of Computer Based Test (CBT). During that time duration, candidates will have to solve General aptitude and their chosen subject’s questions.
The General Aptitude section will consist of:
- Analysis and Synthesis
After analysing the examination pattern, there are some important takeaways that you should bear in mind.
- The Aptitude section is very important. Never ignore it!
- Prepare as per the latest syllabus.
- Bring some diversification in the types of questions you practise.
- Prepare for all sections (MCQs/MSQs/NAT)
GATE 2024 Syllabus
The syllabus of GATE (Graduate Aptitude Test in Engineering) has always been vast for all subjects. There’s a lot to cover, and a lot to summarise to keep your preparation up to the mark. You will be competing with prodigies who have maintained a streak of scores. In that case it’s essential that your preparation strategy for GATE s2024 is full proof. And to make that happen, the first step is to know your syllabus.
1. Physical Chemistry
Postulates of quantum mechanics. Operators. Time dependent and time independent Schrödinger equations. Born interpretation. Dirac bra-ket notation. Particle in a box: infinite and finite square wells; concept of tunnelling; particles in 1D, 2D and 3D-box; applications. Harmonic oscillator: harmonic and anharmonic potentials; hermite polynomials. Rotational motion: Angular momentum operators, Rigid rotor. Hydrogen and hydrogen-like atoms : atomic orbitals; radial distribution function. Multi-electron atoms: orbital approximation; electron spin; Pauli exclusion principle; Slater determinants. Approximation Methods: Variation method and secular determinants; first order perturbation techniques. Atomic units. Molecular structure and Chemical bonding: Born-Oppenheimer approximation; Valence bond theory and linear combination of atomic orbitals -molecular orbital (LCAO-MO) theory. Hybrid orbitals. Applications of LCAO-MO theory to H2+, H2; orbital theory (MOT) of homo- and heteronuclear diatomic molecules. Hückel approximation and its application to annular π electron systems.
Symmetry elements and operations; Point groups and character tables; Internal coordinates and vibrational modes; symmetry adapted linear combination of atomic orbitals (LCAOMO); construction of hybrid orbitals using symmetry aspects.
Atomic spectroscopy; Russell-Saunders coupling; Term symbols and spectral details; origin of selection rules. Rotational, vibrational, electronic and Raman spectroscopy of diatomic and polyatomic molecules. Line broadening. Einstein’s coefficients. Relationship of transition moment integral with molar extinction coefficient and oscillator strength. Basic principles of nuclear magnetic resonance: gyromagnetic ratio; chemical shift, nuclear Coupling.
Laws of thermodynamics. Standard states. Thermochemistry. Thermodynamic functions and their relationships: Gibbs-Helmholtz and Maxwell relations, Gibbs-Duhem equation, van’t Hoff equation. Criteria of spontaneity and equilibrium. Absolute entropy. Partial molar quantities. Thermodynamics of mixing. Chemical potential. Fugacity, activity and activity coefficients. Ideal and Non-ideal solutions, Raoult’s Law and Henry’s Law, Chemical equilibria. Dependence of equilibrium constant on temperature and pressure. Ionic mobility and conductivity. Debye-Hückel limiting law. Debye-Hückel-Onsager equation. Standard electrode potentials and electrochemical cells. Nernst Equation and its application, relationship between Electrode potential and thermodynamic quantities, Potentiometric and conductometric titrations. Phase rule. Clausius-Clapeyron equation. Phase diagram of one component systems: CO2, H2O, S; two component systems: liquid- vapour, liquid-liquid and solid-liquid systems. Fractional distillation. Azeotropes and eutectics. Statistical thermodynamics: microcanonical, canonical and grand canonical ensembles, Boltzmann distribution, partition functions and thermodynamic properties.
Kinetics (Topic have been rearranged)
Elementary, parallel, opposing and consecutive reactions. Steady state approximation. Mechanisms of complex reactions. Unimolecular reactions. Potential energy surfaces and classical trajectories, Concept of Saddle points, Transition state theory: Eyring equation, thermodynamic aspects. Kinetics of polymerization. Catalysis concepts and enzyme catalysis. Kinetic isotope effects. Fast reaction kinetics: relaxation and flow methods. Diffusion controlled reactions. Kinetics of photochemical and photophysical processes.
Surfaces and Interfaces
Physisorption and chemisorption. Langmuir, Freundlich and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) isotherms. Surface catalysis: Langmuir-Hinshelwood mechanism. Surface tension, viscosity. Self-assembly. Physical chemistry of colloids, micelles and macromolecules.
2. Organic Chemistry
Chirality and symmetry of organic molecules with or without chiral centres and determination of their absolute configurations. Relative stereochemistry in compounds. having more than one stereogenic centre. Homotopic, enantiotopic and diastereotopic atoms, groups and faces. Stereoselective and stereospecific synthesis. Conformational analysis of acyclic and cyclic compounds. Geometrical isomerism and optical isomerism. Configurational and conformational effects, atropisomerism, and neighbouring group participation on reactivity and selectivity/specificity.
Basic mechanistic concepts – kinetic versus thermodynamic control, Hammond’s postulate and Curtin-Hammett principle. Methods of determining reaction mechanisms through kinetics, identification of products, intermediates and isotopic labelling. Linear free-energy relationship – Hammett and Taft equations. Nucleophilic and electrophilic substitution reactions (both aromatic and aliphatic). Addition reactions to carbon-carbon and carbon-heteroatom (N and O) multiple bonds. Elimination reactions. Reactive intermediates – carbocations, carbanions, carbenes, nitrenes, arynes and free radicals. Molecular rearrangements.
Synthesis, reactions, mechanisms and selectivity involving the following classes of compounds – alkenes, alkynes, arenes, alcohols, phenols, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids, esters, nitriles, halides, nitro compounds, amines and amides. Uses of Mg, Li, Cu, B, Zn, P, S, Sn and Si based reagents in organic synthesis. Carbon-carbon bond formation through coupling reactions – Heck, Suzuki, Stille, Sonogoshira, Negishi, Kumada, Hiyama, Tsuji-Trost, olefin metathesis and McMurry. Concepts of multistep synthesis – retrosynthetic analysis, strategic disconnections, synthons and synthetic equivalents. Atom economy and Green Chemistry, Umpolung reactivity – formyl and acyl anion equivalents. Selectivity in organic synthesis – chemo-, regio- and stereoselectivity. Protection and deprotection of functional groups. Concepts of asymmetric synthesis – resolution (including enzymatic), desymmetrization and use of chiral auxiliaries, organocatalysis. Carbon-carbon Sergeant to set it as and carbon-heteroatom bond forming reactions through enolates (including boron enolates), enamines and silyl enol ethers. Stereoselective addition to C=O groups (Cram, Prelog and Felkin-Anh models).
Pericyclic Reactions and Photochemistry
Electrocyclic, cycloaddition and sigmatropic reactions. Orbital correlations – FMO and PMO treatments, Woodward-Hoffmann rule. Photochemistry of alkenes, arenes and carbonyl compounds. Photooxidation and photoreduction. Di- + -methane rearrangement, Barton-McCombie reaction, Norrish type-I and II cleavage reaction.
Structure, preparation, properties and reactions of furan, pyrrole, thiophene, pyridine, indole, quinoline and isoquinoline.
Structure, properties and reactions of mono- and di-saccharides, physicochemical properties of amino acids, chemical synthesis of peptides, chemical structure determination of peptides and proteins, structural features of proteins, nucleic acids, lipids, steroids, terpenoids, carotenoids, and alkaloids.
Experimental techniques in organic chemistry
Optical rotation (polarimetry). Applications of various chromatographic techniques such as thin-layer, column, HPLC and GC. Applications of UV-visible, IR, NMR and Mass spectrometry in the structural determination of organic molecules.
3. Inorganic Chemistry
Main Group Elements
Hydrides, halides, oxides, oxoacids, nitrides, sulfides – shapes and
reactivity. Structure and bonding of boranes, carboranes, silicones, silicates, boron nitride,
borazines and phosphazenes. Allotropes of carbon, phosphorous and sulphur. Industrial
synthesis of compounds of main group elements. Chemistry of noble gases, pseudohalogens,
and interhalogen compounds. Acid-base concepts and principles (Lewis, Brønsted, HSAB and
Coordination chemistry – structure and isomerism, theories of bonding
(VBT, CFT, and MOT). Energy level diagrams in various crystal fields, CFSE, applications of
CFT, Jahn-Teller distortion. Electronic spectra of transition metal complexes: spectroscopic
term symbols, selection rules, Orgel and Tanabe-Sugano diagrams, nephelauxetic effect and
Racah parameter, charge-transfer spectra. Magnetic properties of transition metal complexes.
Ray-Dutt and Bailar twists, Reaction mechanisms: kinetic and thermodynamic stability,
substitution and redox reactions. Metal-metal multiple bond.
Lanthanides and Actinides
Recovery. Periodic properties, spectra and magnetic properties.
Organometallics: 18-Electron rule; metal-alkyl, metal-carbonyl, metal-olefin and metal-
carbine complexes and metallocenes. Fluxionality in organometallic complexes. Types of
organometallic reactions. Homogeneous catalysis – Hydrogenation, hydroformylation, acetic
acid synthesis, metathesis and olefin oxidation. Heterogeneous catalysis – Fischer- Tropsch
reaction, Ziegler-Natta polymerization.
Detection of radioactivity, Decay processes, half-life of radioactive elements,
fission and fusion processes.
Ion (Na+ and K+) transport, oxygen binding, transport and utilization, electron transfer reactions, nitrogen fixation, metalloenzymes containing magnesium, molybdenum, iron, cobalt, copper and zinc.
Crystal systems and lattices, Miller planes, crystal packing, crystal defects, Bragg’s law, ionic crystals, structures of AX, AX2, ABX3 type compounds, spinels, band theory, metals and semiconductors.
Instrumental Methods of Analysis
UV-visible, fluorescence and FTIR spectrophotometry, NMR and ESR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, atomic absorption spectroscopy, Mössbauer spectroscopy (Fe and Sn) and X-ray crystallography. Chromatography including GC and HPLC. Electroanalytical methods- polarography, cyclic voltammetry, ion-selective electrodes, Thermoanalytical methods.
Trend Analysis of GATE (2021 – 2023)
Before a future strategy for GATE 2024, let’s take a look at the GATE question trends throughout the years. We’ll be going through the trends for all three sections (Physical, Organic, and Inorganic chemistry for better understanding.
Question-wise Trends GATE Physical Chemistry
After analysing the trend in Physical chemistry for GATE, we can conclude a few things:
- Physical Chemistry had a whooping 30 marks weightage from 2021 – 2023. This fact should be more than enough for anyone to start focusing on Physical Chemistry even more.
- Physical Chemistry has been consistently delivering around 20 questions every year. With over 40% weightage, physical chemistry becomes
- Topics like Quantum Chemistry, Chemical Kinetics, Physical Spectroscopy, Thermodynamics and thermochemistry,and electrochemistry are very important. As these are the topics from which questions are being asked consistently in the GATE examination.
- However, if we look at the marks weightage trend, we can clearly notice that there are more essential topics. Topics like Quantum Chemistry, Chemical Kinetics, Physical Spectroscopy, Thermodynamics & thermochemistry, electrochemistrySolutions, and solid state become highly significant in this case.
Question-wise Trends GATE Inorganic Chemistry
The analysis of Inorganic Chemistry GATE trends from (2021 – 2023) reveals how some topics have been consistent over the years. We can break down the analysis in a few points:
- GATE organic chemistry is a little less significant when compared to Physical Chemistry in GATE. However, it doesn’t mean that organic isn’t important. It is! And carries around 27 marks every year.
- Total questions from Organic chemistry in GATE have always fluctuated around 16-18 questions per year.
- Topics like Coordination Chemistry, Organometallics and Cade & Cluster, Bioinorganic, and f-block are very important due to the weightage they carry.
Question-wise Trends GATE Organic Chemistry
Organic chemistry has always been the trickiest of all sections in all GATE examinations. Which is why it’s said if you can solve the organic chemistry in GATE, you are designed to crack it! And we are not kidding, Organic chemistry will be the part that will decide whether or not you’ll make it. Now, let’s discuss the takeaways from the last 3 years’ GATE organic chemistry question analysis.
- The core organic topics (Reagents, Organic Spectroscopy, Name Reaction, Pericyclic Reaction, and Stereochemistry) are the toughest topics. These topics make you hate organic chemistry in GATE but ironically, these are the topics with the highest marks weightage
- Most reactions are synthesis based which will be taking an ample amount of time to be solved. So beware, and make sure you are moving forward if you can’t solve some questions.
Highest Weightage Topics (Marks-wise) in GATE over the years
To make your struggle a little easier, we did our research and curated a list of topics that will help you score better in GATE 2024. These are the Highest Weightage Topics (Marks-wise) in GATE over the last 3 years. Which means, these topics will fetch you some good score if you can cover them thoroughly.
A few things to note here:
- These topics have been carrying 60% of marks in the chemistry examination. So, mastering these topics will get you halfway through your goal.
- Most of these topics will be acting as a deciding factor of your ultimate score. So make sure you’re covering them no matter what!
Strategy to crack GATE 2024
Now that we’ve understood the pattern GATE has been following throughout the years, we can finally use our analysis to curate the ultimate strategy so that you don’t have to search for “How to prepare for GATE 2024” anymore.
So let’s uncover this guide Step-by-Step:
Prepare as per the latest syllabus
The first thing to keep in mind is to make sure you’re preparing for the latest syllabus. This will ensure that you’re not over or under studying for the exam. GATE is an examination where it’s very rare to see any questions that come out of nowhere.
- Check the latest syllabus and choose 15 of the most asked topics in GATE. These topics should be studied thoroughly before you move on to any other topics. Studying in 15 topic sets will be easier and easier to complete in short durations.
- Buy a crash course or get enrolled in a GATE coaching to learn from experts. This will help you overcome your shortcomings and will definitely maximise your results. Above all, you can always look forward to the Vedprep Chem Academy courses that provide you best in class faculty, quality study material, expert guidance, a solid trust, and whatnot!
Prepare short notes for all topics
The last thing you’d want is to look for revision notes when you want them the most. Which is why, we advise our students to create their own short notes while they are still in the preparation phase. Moreover, this helps them in retaining what they learn and revise anything they want with just a glimpse. Short notes can be a life saver in such cases and trust us, you’ll never regret making some.
- Physical Chemistry: Make short notes and formula sheets. Try to include short tips and tricks in this section.
- Organic Chemistry: Makes short notes around mechanisms and include relevant (upto 5) examples with all mechanisms.
- Inorganic Chemistry: No shorts needed for inorganic chemistry. Literally everything is important in inorganic as long as it’s included in the syllabus.
Prepare your own Formula Sheets/Notes
When it comes to an exam like GATE, there are lots of formulas that you’ll have to memorise. Reactions, Rules, Methods, Reagents, and whatnot. Don’t you think it’d be convenient to have all those things in one place? Well for that very reason, you should make your own formula sheets that will help you revise all those formulas and complex reactions all at once.
Practice Questions & Timely Mock Tests
The number of practice questions and mock tests an aspirant solves is what differentiates a topper from a mediocre student. As, by practising questions you build the foundation of your preparation which ensures a better rank. And every mock test you attend gets you into that exam mode which helps improve your time spent on each question. The only catch is that you’ll have to attend the mock tests as if you were attending the actual exam. This will help you build that speed and accuracy that will help you in the final examination.
The final and most important thing that you must take care of is your revision. This is where the toughest aspirants falter. Revision can be boring and a pain at times because no one wants to look back at the syllabus they completed a while ago. But this pain is very important when it comes to GATE because the syllabus is vast, and time is never enough. Which is why you should aim to retain as much as you can before your examination. But how would you do that?
Well, revision might seem difficult and some people struggle to retain what they learned even after revisions. But don’t worry because we have already curated a solution for that.
You can revise in 4 particular ways to get the best results.
- Daily revision of everything you learn/study in a particular day to keep it fresh.
- Weekly revisions of everything you study in that particular week
- Monthly revisions of everything learned in that particular months.
- And finally, quarterly revision of everything you study in a span of 3 months.
This strategy will help you retain almost everything you study in a very easy way. Yes this regime can be hectic at times but if you have a solid goal, then you’ll have to sacrifice your comfort zone for it.
We hope your search for “How to prepare for GATE 2024” ends this this blog. We have covered every single thing that you’ll need to crack this door and enter into a brighter and successful future. So make sure you use the best of our research and analysis of GATE over the years. However, there’s something you can’t just take away from this blog, and that is proper guidance and training.
But don’t you worry! Because Vedprep Chem Academy has been a trusted learning partner of thousands of students for over 13 years. Our students have consistently secured AIR 1 over the years in GATE, CSIR NET, JAM, and many other exams.
We have developed a plethora of practice papers, mock tests, and notes for our students so that they can crack their dream exams with ease. Along with that, our excellent faculty has curated offline, online, and recorded lectures for all of you to study from at very reasonable prices.
So don’t wait anymore, join Vedprep Chem Academy today and knock out the GATE 2024 exam!